what are sponges made of

what are sponges made of

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After the skins have The skeletons are obtained by cutting the growing sponges and soaking the … Advertisement. They work great for applying colors from a split-cake. [28], Some types of cells have a single nucleus and membrane each, but are connected to other single-nucleus cells and to the main syncytium by "bridges" made of cytoplasm. From the mixer, workers pour the material into a large rectangular mold (61 cm) high, 2 ft (61 cm) wide, and 6 h (182.9 cm) long. Cellulose sponges are made from a mixture of hemp fibers, sodium sulphate crystals, softeners, and wood pulp (cellulose). In particular, sponges occupy an important role as detritivores in coral reef food webs by recycling detritus to higher trophic levels. In addition Archaeocyathids, whose fossils are common in rocks from 530 to 490 million years ago, are now regarded as a type of sponge. They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them. This inability to prevent microbes from penetrating their porous tissue could be a major reason why they have never evolved a more complex anatomy. the celluolose mix cooks, then cools, it becomes a hard, porous block. The finished sponges While it is true that real sea sponges have been in use since the Roman Empire, synthetic alternatives made primarily from wood pulp became commonplace by the middle of the 20th century when DuPont perfected the process of manufacturing them. [22][23], The few species of demosponge that have entirely soft fibrous skeletons with no hard elements have been used by humans over thousands of years for several purposes, including as padding and as cleaning tools. the type used for applying makeup is made with very fine crystals. States, where at least 80% of the sponges in use are manmade. [13] Sponges are known for regenerating from fragments that are broken off, although this only works if the fragments include the right types of cells. Update: im from Scotland, I seen the ones in stalls in Greece. Woodward. [8], Sponges have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and that often migrate between the main cell layers and the mesohyl in the process. The inner pockets of the pleats are lined with choanocytes, which connect to the outer pockets of the pleats by ostia. There are four types of larvae, but all are balls of cells with an outer layer of cells whose flagellae or cilia enable the larvae to move. Cellulose sponges are made from wood fibers, and although human-made, they’re much more eco-friendly than plastic ones since they go through a less toxic manufacturing process and they biodegrade in landfills. [92] Other research indicates Porifera is monophyletic. The study recommended further analyses using a wider range of sponges and other simple Metazoa such as Placozoa. The sponge industry in the United States centers around which served the purpose of modern toilet paper, and they were certainly Most of the cells transform into archeocytes and then into the types appropriate for their locations in a miniature adult sponge. Crossland CJ, Barnes DJ, Borowitzka MA (1980) "Diurnal lipid and mucus production in the staghorn coral, Tremblay P, Grover R, Maguer JF, Legendre L, Ferrier-Pagès C (2012) "Autotrophic carbon budget in coral tissue:a new 13C-based model of photosynthate translocation.". Symbiotic cyanobacteria may form a third of the total mass of living tissue in some sponges, and some sponges gain 48% to 80% of their energy supply from these micro-organisms. Toray Fine Chemicals is the sole producer of cellulose sponges in Japan. The sponge block is then soaked in a vat of bleach. When environmental conditions become less hospitable to the sponges, for example as temperatures drop, many freshwater species and a few marine ones produce gemmules, "survival pods" of unspecialized cells that remain dormant until conditions improve; they then either form completely new sponges or recolonize the skeletons of their parents.[14]. A sponge is a tool or cleaning aid made of soft, porous material. [46][49], Freshwater sponges often host green algae as endosymbionts within archaeocytes and other cells, and benefit from nutrients produced by the algae. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 377: 101−106, Naumann M, Haas A, Struck U, Mayr C, El-Zibdah M, Wild C (2010) Organic matter release by dominant hermatypic corals of the Northern Red Sea. when they come into the plant to make sure they conform to standards. Fragments of sponges may be detached by currents or waves. with little or no waste. After swimming for a few days the larvae sink and crawl until they find a place to settle. Stain removal isn't the only thing this special foam is useful for. [117] The sperm of Homoscleromorpha share with those of Eumetazoa features that those of other sponges lack. [12], Most species use sexual reproduction, releasing sperm cells into the water to fertilize ova that in some species are released and in others are retained by the "mother." [41], Sponges were traditionally distributed in three classes: calcareous sponges (Calcarea), glass sponges (Hexactinellida) and demosponges (Demospongiae). Spicules are produced by sclerocyte cells,[28] and may be separate, connected by joints, or fused. [55] Some gemmules are retained within the parent sponge, and in spring it can be difficult to tell whether an old sponge has revived or been "recolonized" by its own gemmules. [30], A recently discovered carnivorous sponge that lives near hydrothermal vents hosts methane-eating bacteria, and digests some of them. [27], Some sponges also secrete exoskeletons that lie completely outside their organic components. Sponges are found in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and sizes – and scientists believe that the colors of the sponge may act as a protection from the sun’s harmful UV rays. [30], Sponges contain genes very similar to those that contain the "recipe" for the post-synaptic density, an important signal-receiving structure in the neurons of all other animals. So far only 137 species have been discovered. They load each big rectangle of the sheep's wool sponge, or A few species reproduce by budding. Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (/pəˈrɪfərə/; meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa (animal) clade as a sister of the Diploblasts. examined under a spectrograph. Fortune A rough sponge used for washing a The motion of the flagella sucks water through passages in the "cobweb" and expels it via the open ends of the bell-shaped chambers. In all three types of structure the cross-section area of the choanocyte-lined regions is much greater than that of the intake and outlet channels. The natural sponges we use in our baths are actually animal skeletons. [41], Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina suffer from Aplysina red band syndrome. It cleanses like nothing you have ever experienced, leaving the face fresh, glowing and silky smooth. The scouring pad, which is cut to the same size as the sponge, is affixed to the sponge in a laminating machine that uses a specialized sponge glue made of moisture-cured polyurethane. Others produce the raw blocks of sponge, and then sell them to a company [59], Sponges are worldwide in their distribution, living in a wide range of ocean habitats, from the polar regions to the tropics. [39], In zoology a skeleton is any fairly rigid structure of an animal, irrespective of whether it has joints and irrespective of whether it is biomineralized. These particles are consumed by pinacocytes or by archaeocytes which partially extrude themselves through the walls of the ostia. mixed with certain chemical softeners. They can be very large, and grow in Synthetic sponges are made of three basic ingredients: cellulose derived Sponges are animals with dense skeletons that are highly adapted to their environments, although it is easy to see why they may be mistaken for plants. [94] [95], So far scientific publications have identified about 9,000 poriferan species,[41] of which: about 400 are glass sponges; about 500 are calcareous species; and the rest are demosponges. Predation by fish may even help to spread sponges by detaching fragments. are chemical softeners, which break the cellulose down into the proper The syncytium's cytoplasm, the soupy fluid that fills the interiors of cells, is organized into "rivers" that transport nuclei, organelles ("organs" within cells) and other substances. [96] Therefore, they have recently been recognized as the fourth class of sponges.[97][98]. steps along the manufacturing process. An analysis in 1996 concluded that they were closely related to sponges on the grounds that the detailed structure of chancellorid sclerites ("armor plates") is similar to that of fibers of spongin, a collagen protein, in modern keratose (horny) demosponges such as Darwinella. bottom of the mold. Rix L, de Goeij JM, Mueller CE, Struck U and others (2016) "Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and coldwater coral reef ecosystems". The vast variety is available in these organic-made or vegan sponges. [126][127], Lacking any protective shell or means of escape, sponges have evolved to synthesize a variety of unusual compounds. [114] However, another analysis in 2002 concluded that chancelloriids are not sponges and may be intermediate between sponges and more complex animals, among other reasons because their skins were thicker and more tightly connected than those of sponges. Today's item answers the question, "What are sponges made of?" At least one species of sponge has internal fibers that function as tracks for use by nutrient-carrying archaeocytes,[28] and these tracks also move inert objects. A dolphin will attach a marine sponge to its rostrum, which is presumably then used to protect it when searching for food in the sandy sea bottom. [121] Early Europeans used soft sponges for many purposes, including padding for helmets, portable drinking utensils and municipal water filters. The divers pry sponges off the rocks or reefs The mesohyl functions as an endoskeleton in most sponges, and is the only skeleton in soft sponges that encrust hard surfaces such as rocks. [69] As many as 16,000 individuals inhabit a single loggerhead sponge, feeding off the larger particles that collect on the sponge as it filters the ocean to feed itself. A great alternative to paper towels - one sponge can outlast more than 30 rolls. So let's start by identifying the four main types of sponges: cellulose, melamine, animal, and loofa. Rix L, de Goeij JM, van Oevelen D, Struck U, Al-Horani FA, Wild C, Naumann MS (2017) "Differential recycling of coral and algal dissolved organic matter via the sponge loop". [28], Sponges' cells absorb oxygen by diffusion from water into cells as water flows through body, into which carbon dioxide and other soluble waste products such as ammonia also diffuse. [36] Instead of choanocytes, they have further syncytia, known as choanosyncytia, which form bell-shaped chambers where water enters via perforations. Particles from 0.5 μm to 50 μm are trapped in the ostia, which taper from the outer to inner ends. MLB won't punish Dodgers star for protocol violations Although there are freshwater species, the great majority are marine (salt-water) species, ranging in habitat from tidal zones to depths exceeding 8,800 m (5.5 mi). The size of the pores is determined by the All sponges have ostia, channels leading to the interior through the mesohyl, and in most sponges these are controlled by tube-like porocytes that form closable inlet valves. Sponges may also contract in order to reduce the area that is vulnerable to attack by predators. [113], In the 1990s sponges were widely regarded as a monophyletic group, all of them having descended from a common ancestor that was itself a sponge, and as the "sister-group" to all other metazoans (multi-celled animals), which themselves form a monophyletic group. elaborate branched formations, or be round and small, or grow flat or in a Natural sponges are the skeletons of a kind of simple sea animal. Erasers made with melamine foam might be just what you need. Some species can contract the osculum independently of the rest of the body. maintain the proper proportions in the mix, for example, and control the Juveniles drift or swim freely, while adults are stationary. They grow in worm, shallow waters, and are particularly plentiful in The converter cuts the sponges according to its [28] In 2008 a University of Stuttgart team reported that spicules made of silica conduct light into the mesohyl, where the photosynthesizing endosymbionts live. However, by the mid-20th century, over-fishing brought both the animals and the industry close to extinction. Until the invention of synthetic sponges, they were used as cleaning tools, applicators for paints and ceramic glazes and discreet contraceptives. A few species can contract their whole bodies, and many can close their oscula and ostia. fibers, and dye in a large, revolving metal drum. [82][83] Coral-derived organic matter could also be indirectly transferred to sponges via bacteria, which can also consume coral mucus. Sponges are divided into classes mainly according to the composition of their skeletons:[30] These are arranged in evolutionary order as shown below in ascending order of their evolution from top to bottom: Although molecular clocks and biomarkers suggest sponges existed well before the Cambrian explosion of life, silica spicules like those of demosponges are absent from the fossil record until the Cambrian. The half circle sponges with small pores are the most common type of sponges. stiff sheets. sponge. [15] The fragile glass sponges, with "scaffolding" of silica spicules, are restricted to polar regions and the ocean depths where predators are rare. Leuconid sponges grow to over 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter, and the fact that growth in any direction increases the number of choanocyte chambers enables them to take a wider range of forms, for example "encrusting" sponges whose shapes follow those of the surfaces to which they attach. [119], A very large and internally consistent alignment of 1,719 proteins at the metazoan scale, published in 2017, showed that (i) sponges – represented by Homoscleromorpha, Calcarea, Hexactinellida, and Demospongiae – are monophyletic, (ii) sponges are sister-group to all other multicellular animals, (iii) ctenophores emerge as the second-earliest branching animal lineage, and (iv) placozoans emerge as the third animal lineage, followed by cnidarians sister-group to bilaterians. However, in the 1980s it was found that these were all members of either the Calcarea or the Demospongiae. filters microscopic plants from the water, and expels the excess water A study in 2005 concluded that mothers teach the behavior to their daughters, and that all the sponge-users are closely related, suggesting that it is a fairly recent innovation.[24]. This raises questions about whether flask cells represent the predecessors of true neurons or are evidence that sponges' ancestors had true neurons but lost them as they adapted to a sessile lifestyle. Demosponges is a class that contains most of the sponges. And with 50% of the scrubbing fibers Sponges are worldwide in their distribution, living in a wide range of ocean habitats, from the polar regions to the tropics. The cellulose used for sponges arrives at the sponge factory in large, However, most species have the ability to perform movements that are coordinated all over their bodies, mainly contractions of the pinacocytes, squeezing the water channels and thus expelling excess sediment and other substances that may cause blockages. However, the genus Chondrocladia uses a highly modified water flow system to inflate balloon-like structures that are used for capturing prey. They use their elongated mouthparts to pierce the sponge and suck the fluids within. In the second half of the twentieth century, cellulose sponges It can be thrown in live attached to rocks on the sea bed. This makes the flow slower near the choanocytes and thus makes it easier for them to trap food particles. Specifically, Synalpheus regalis utilizes the sponge not only as a food source, but also as a defense against other shrimp and predators. [64], Glass sponges produce no toxic chemicals, and live in very deep water where predators are rare. Coral Reefs 29: 649−659, Hoegh-Guldberg O, McCloskey LR, Muscatine L (1987) Expulsion of zooxanthellae by symbiotic cnidarians from the Red Sea. Is it, or is it close to, polyurethane? They are produced by TAG, Mehron, Diamond FX and many other brands. Many different types of sponge are harvested and dried for human use, but During spawning, sperm burst out of their cysts and are expelled via the osculum. [28], Adult sponges lack neurons or any other kind of nervous tissue. If they contact another sponge of the same species, the water flow carries them to choanocytes that engulf them but, instead of digesting them, metamorphose to an ameboid form and carry the sperm through the mesohyl to eggs, which in most cases engulf the carrier and its cargo. Nature 428: 66−70, Tanaka Y, Miyajima T, Umezawa Y, Hayashibara T, Ogawa H, Koike I (2009) Net release of dissolved organic matter by the scleractinian coral Acropora pulchra. Additional washings alter the texture, making the sponge more Wild C, Niggl W, Naumann MS, Haas AF (2010) "Organic matter release by Red Sea coral reef organisms—potential effects on microbial activity and in situ O. Tanaka Y, Ogawa H, Miyajima T (2011) "Production and bacterial decomposition of dissolved organic matter in a fringing coral reef". In addition to or instead of sclerocytes, "Grey cells" act as sponges' equivalent of an, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 10:21. manufacturing industry that also invented nylon—in the 1940s. Archeocytes remove mineral particles that threaten to block the ostia, transport them through the mesohyl and generally dump them into the outgoing water current, although some species incorporate them into their skeletons. [50] Sponges that host photosynthesizing organisms are most common in waters with relatively poor supplies of food particles, and often have leafy shapes that maximize the amount of sunlight they collect. [43] Collar bodies digest food and distribute it wrapped in vesicles that are transported by dynein "motor" molecules along bundles of microtubules that run throughout the syncytium. These exoskeletons are secreted by the pinacocytes that form the animals' skins. [3][4][5][6][7] They are multicellular organisms that have bodies full of pores and channels allowing water to circulate through them, consisting of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two thin layers of cells. For the porous cleaning tool, see, "Primitive Sponge" redirects here. The sponges in this class make their skeleton from spongin. [34], Glass sponges present a distinctive variation on this basic plan. Members of this family have been found to have anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Artificial sponges were first developed pliable. [71], The hypothesis has been made that coral reef sponges facilitate the transfer of coral-derived organic matter to their associated detritivores via the production of sponge detritus, as shown in the diagram. Sponges do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems. size of the sodium sulphate crystals. These two samples of scouring sponges, now part of our everyday life, are composed of two separate layers of artificial polymers that are laminated together. Other materials needed Hippospongia canaliculata. cnidarians and bilaterians). through openings in the bottom of the mold. [26][27] All known living sponges can remold their bodies, as most types of their cells can move within their bodies and a few can change from one type to another. Such conclusions imply that sponges are not monophyletic, because the last common ancestor of all sponges would also be a direct ancestor of the Eumetazoa, which are not sponges. Melamine sponges are made from carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. [5], A report in 1997 described use of sponges as a tool by bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay in Western Australia. Next the sponge is cleaned Sperm are produced by choanocytes or entire choanocyte chambers that sink into the mesohyl and form spermatic cysts while eggs are formed by transformation of archeocytes, or of choanocytes in some species. [65], The Caribbean chicken-liver sponge Chondrilla nucula secretes toxins that kill coral polyps, allowing the sponges to grow over the coral skeletons. [30], Other types of cell live and move within the mesohyl:[28][30], Many larval sponges possess neuron-less eyes that are based on cryptochromes. set to rotate, and it churns the ingredients so that they are thoroughly [28], A sponge's body is hollow and is held in shape by the mesohyl, a jelly-like substance made mainly of collagen and reinforced by a dense network of fibers also made of collagen. sponge is cut. I know it is from the sea and you see them in stalls on holiday but they are hard. [46][47] Most carnivorous sponges live in deep waters, up to 8,840 m (5.49 mi),[48] and the development of deep-ocean exploration techniques is expected to lead to the discovery of several more. Their spicules, which are made of silica, form a scaffolding-like framework between whose rods the living tissue is suspended like a cobweb that contains most of the cell types. The cellulose becomes soft and A study in 2001 based on comparisons of ribosome DNA concluded that the most fundamental division within sponges was between glass sponges and the rest, and that Eumetazoa are more closely related to calcareous sponges, those with calcium carbonate spicules, than to other types of sponge. [53] Freshwater gemmules may also include phytosynthesizing symbionts. The fertilized eggs develop into larvae, which swim off in search of places to settle. Instead, most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes. "Ex-sponging Bacteria." Édouard Placide Duchassaing de Fontbressin, "The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity", "Animals die more shallowly: they aren't deceased, they're dead. The wave-like motion of the whip-like flagella drives water through the sponge's body. Whether at the first manufacturing facility or at the converter, workers [30], Sponges have three asexual methods of reproduction: after fragmentation; by budding; and by producing gemmules. These lesions may completely encircle branches of the sponge. [116], Analyses since 2001 have concluded that Eumetazoa (more complex than sponges) are more closely related to particular groups of sponges than to the rest of the sponges. [54], Most sponges are hermaphrodites (function as both sexes simultaneously), although sponges have no gonads (reproductive organs). Many marine species host other photosynthesizing organisms, most commonly cyanobacteria but in some cases dinoflagellates. It explains the history and science of sponges (did… are checked for tenacity, that is, how easily they tear. They are among the simplest animal organisms, having no For example, sclerosponges ("hard sponges") have massive calcium carbonate exoskeletons over which the organic matter forms a thin layer with choanocyte chambers in pits in the mineral. cut the sponges on an automatic cutter. A few species, the Caribbean fire sponge Tedania ignis, cause a severe rash in humans who handle them. While it has been argued that this 'sponge biomarker' could have originated from marine algae, recent research suggests that the algae's ability to produce this biomarker evolved only in the Carboniferous; as such, the biomarker remains strongly supportive of the presence of demosponges in the Cryogenian. The greatest numbers of sponges are usually found on firm surfaces such as rocks, but some sponges can attach themselves to soft sediment by means of a root-like base. This is attached in a process called laminating, after the sponge is cut. [122] pores. animals die on the boat, and their skins rot off. Sponges are slow-growing, taking several years to Is it possible to made sponge by using liquid application and later cure/set to form sponge? divers. sponge, is affixed to the sponge in a laminating. All the large sponges … These fossils, which include spicules, pinacocytes, porocytes, archeocytes, sclerocytes and the internal cavity, have been classified as demosponges. Different kinds of sponges. sodium sulphate crystals melt, and drain away through openings in the Workers add the sodium sulphate Some calcified demosponges grow by only 0.2 mm (0.0079 in) per year and, if that rate is constant, specimens 1 m (3.3 ft) wide must be about 5,000 years old. One such class is the oxidized fatty acid derivatives called oxylipins. The branch of zoology that studies sponges is known as spongiology. made of a soft material called spongin, and a leathery skin broken by How can I get a sponge decorated in a specific way? [27][28], Even if a few sponges are able to produce mucus – which acts as a microbial barrier in all other animals – no sponge with the ability to secrete a functional mucus layer has been recorded. Luffa Gardens in Reedley, California grows and harvests organic luffa sponges. Luffas are a type of cucumber in the gourd family. [125], Sponges have medicinal potential due to the presence in sponges themselves or their microbial symbionts of chemicals that may be used to control viruses, bacteria, tumors and fungi. Other materials needed are chemical softeners, which break the cellulose down into the proper consistency, bleach, and dye. Their bodies consist of skeletons Fossils of glass sponges have been found from around 540 million years ago in rocks in Australia, China and Mongolia. Many sponges have internal skeletons of spongin and/or spicules (skeletal-like fragments) of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide. Trump camp defiant as Biden moves closer to victory. de Goeij JM, van Oevelen D, Vermeij MJA, Osinga R, Middelburg JJ, de Goeij AFPM and Admiraal W (2013) "Surviving in a marine desert: the sponge loop retains resources within coral reefs". Roman soldiers each carried a personal sponge, Spongin fibres are composed of a silk-like scleroprotein. deep water divers. The sponge eats by pumping seawater in through its pores. How are sponges made? Synthetic sponges include personal and household cleaning tools, breast implants,[123] and contraceptive sponges. directly from seawater. Each egg generally acquires a yolk by consuming "nurse cells". [54] The gemmules then become dormant, and in this state can survive cold, drying out, lack of oxygen and extreme variations in salinity. [102][118], Other anatomical and biochemical evidence links the Eumetazoa with Homoscleromorpha, a sub-group of demosponges. Advertisement. (New York: Harper Collins, 1993). [41] Most live in quiet, clear waters, because sediment stirred up by waves or currents would block their pores, making it difficult for them to feed and breathe. This removes dirt This increase in the number of choanocytes and hence in pumping capacity enables syconoid sponges to grow up to a few centimeters in diameter. Another test is of color. Such contributions to their habitats' resources are significant along Australia's Great Barrier Reef but relatively minor in the Caribbean.[41]. However, they reject grafts from other species but accept them from other members of their own species. jelly-like. sponge-growing waters with a large two-pronged hook and a string bag. [124] Typical materials used are cellulose foam, polyurethane foam, and less frequently, silicone foam. [80][81][71], Organic matter could be transferred from corals to sponges by all these pathways, but DOM likely makes up the largest fraction, as the majority (56 to 80%) of coral mucus dissolves in the water column,[77] and coral loss of fixed carbon due to expulsion of Symbiodinium is typically negligible (0.01%)[80] compared with mucus release (up to ~40%). mold cooks, the sodium sulphate crystals melt, and drain away used for other purposes as well. AeroGarden sponges-the things that you can find in your seed pods are made from Canadian Sphagnum Peat, which is an organic and all natural soil conditioner. The scouring pad, which is cut to the same size as the Many objects with sponge-like textures are now made of substances not derived from poriferans. modern facility, most of the machinery is monitored by computers, that [42] The greatest numbers of sponges are usually found on firm surfaces such as rocks, but some sponges can attach themselves to soft sediment by means of a root-like base. The bridges are controlled by "plugged junctions" that apparently permit some substances to pass while blocking others. They use the mobility of their pinacocytes and choanocytes and reshaping of the mesohyl to re-attach themselves to a suitable surface and then rebuild themselves as small but functional sponges over the course of several days. [18] The results of such an analysis, published in 2009, suggest that a return to the previous view may be warranted. The demosponges are often vibrantly colored and can grow to be the largest of all sponges. Three [57], Sponges in temperate regions live for at most a few years, but some tropical species and perhaps some deep-ocean ones may live for 200 years or more. [51] A sponge fragment can only regenerate if it contains both collencytes to produce mesohyl and archeocytes to produce all the other cell types. 100% natural plant fibre Without such a mucus layer their living tissue is covered by a layer of microbial symbionts, which can contribute up to 40–50% of the sponge wet mass. [101] Well-preserved fossil sponges from about 580 million years ago in the Ediacaran period have been found in the Doushantuo Formation. The calcium carbonate or silica spicules of most sponge genera make them too rough for most uses, but two genera, Hippospongia and Spongia, have soft, entirely fibrous skeletons.

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