We present algorithms for estimating the location of stationary and mobile users based on heterogeneous indoor RF technologies. Operation is accomplished by customary mobile devices not equipped with NFC technology but a WLAN interface. Our framework is unsupervised, requires no labeled data and is able to discover new activities as data grows. This paper provides a meta-review that performed a comprehensive compilation of 62 survey papers in the area of indoor positioning. Previous versions of OS X allowed you to disable Bluetooth discoverability, but Yosemite apparently decided to remove â¦ This labeling was done with an accuracy of 92%, and with an acceptance rate of 82% of all recommended crowd labels. Master of Science dissertation, Bruno, R., Delmastro, F.: Design and analysis of a Bluetooth-based indoor localization system. La rÃ©cente Ã©mergence des smartphones et des objets connectÃ©s a rÃ©volutionnÃ© le mode de vie des utilisateurs. We take a systematic approach and identify the lack of real-time association between human actions and observed energy consumption as one roadblock. For an observational dataset, gathered by mobile phones, we Exploiting the advantages of wireless communication protocols is not only for telecommunication purposes, but also for payments, interaction with intelligent vehicles, etc. A Bluetooth-based tracking system is proposed and evaluated with the location fingerprinting technique to incorporate the Bluetooth properties described in the chapter. The field tests show the effectiveness of the information filter-assisted positioning method, which improves the horizontal positioning accuracy of indoor navigation by about 17% compared to the static fingerprinting positioning method, achieving a 4.2 m positioning accuracy on the average, and about 16% improvement compared to the point Kalman filter. An evaluation of Bluetooth positioning in a general positioning platform is presented. The additional devices with tags should allow your family to find the keys, or TV remote fairly quickly. Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability. A single application interface, termed the universal location framework, is designed to aggregate indoor, outdoor, and proximity sensor technologies. Security and privacy protection is key in the digital world of today. The system permits low-cost, rapid Outdoor location-based services are now prevalent due to advances in mobile technology and GPS.  present a Bluetooth locating solution in a reduced Bluetooth infrastructure area by using RSSI probability distributions. This IID assignment provides interested parties (whether malicious or not) with the ability to easily track a node's physical location using simple tools such as ping and traceroute. LBS are divided into three nonexclusive categories, such as requests for things or information about existing location, receiving alerts, and tracking individuals or groups. attack the problem of identifying transient and non-important links, as well as Indoors, however, even coarse location remains unavailable. The search for more than room-level accuracy might however be irrelevant in many applications (Cheung et al., 2006; ... Bluetooth technology has been used to build tracking systems [10,4, ... â¢ Bluetooth tracking without discoverability has been investigated in, ... WiFi AP Outdoor Indoor in late 2014 the world's first single-chip UWB transceiver , enabling the development of cost-effective localization and tracking systems. The paper provides the reader with an introduction to IPS and the different technologies, techniques, and some methods commonly employed. In: PIMRC 2003: 14th IEEE Proceedings on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, August 2003, vol. Unlike current approaches that can only provide final proximal grouping, our method provides proximal grouping and membership of users over time. The work provides motivation for continued development of non-invasive systems that leverage the existing communication infrastructure and consumer devices that incorporate short range communication technology like Bluetooth. The problem of LOD matrix estimation is formulated as a minimisation problem based on probe trajectories and traffic counts and is then solved thanks to the latest advances in nonsmooth convex optimisation.This thesis demonstrates that, with few hypothesis, it is possible to retrieve the LOD matrix for the whole set of users in a road network. Weibull distribution improves the performance of fingerprinting. Building on top of this model, we introduce a complete system that fairly attributes energy usages of shared resources, and reveals per-person energy footprint information. low-cost stationary beacons and mobile host devices Not only does this model offer a compact visualisation of the distribution of intervals, it also supports an innovative temporal query mechanism that relies on geometries in the two-dimensional space. And, our system has several ways to analyze and visualize individuals' energy footprint. This paper compares techniques, discusses the benefits and drawbacks to facilitate the accurate method at the appropriate time. outdoor cellular and GPS services to enable fluid tracking of a user from the bedroom to the sidewalk. But, why use BLE beacons for tracking? One solution, The significance of location-based services (LBS) continues to grow due to their ability to provide information about physical location in libraries. There has been not much success in using Bluetooth technology for indoor localization, mainly due to the limitation of the technology. This approach does not require establishing any connectivity between Bluetooth devices. Physical Tracking : menaces, performances et applications. With a registered positioning service, a Bluetooth device has an active role in the positioning task, where a connected device to look up respective position in a database uses the unique address of the device. The coefficient matrix follows the Indian Buffet Process prior, which estimates the number of factors automatically. Author Keywords Energy Efficiency, Location-aware, Context-aware, Power Management. Unlike in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), where address randomization is a feature available to manufactures, BT addresses are not randomized because they are largely believed to be immune to tracking attacks. Bluetooth tracking without discoverability. Applying the Bluetooth signal strength parameter to distinguish between observations, we demonstrate that weak links, compared to strong links, have a lower probability of being observed at later times, while such links-on average-also have lower link-weights and probability of sharing an online friendship. Les interfaces sans fil de ces objets connectÃ©s Ã©mettent pÃ©riodiquement des informations, certaines sont spÃ©cifiques aux utilisateurs et permettent par effet de bord dâidentifier et de suivre leur dÃ©placements. We exploit proximity between Bluetooth devices attached to people and objects for estimating 1) room-level proximity of people and objects, and 2) mutual proximity between moving people and objects. 105–122. findings and the potential and limitations of the used method. 2(23), pp. participants). Then, subsequent user devices entering the area can discover the Bluetooth beacons and are able to instantly obtain room-level location information without causing unnecessary prompting to users. probability of sharing an online friendship. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Additionally, it provides an efficient online inference. This is accomplished through a combination of filtering of the static IID and traffic analysis. We construct co-location matrix over time using Bluetooth data. Bluetooth has been identiï¬ed as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, â¦ CILoS is an indoor localization system based on CDMA mo- bile phone signal fingerprinting. Part of Springer Nature. An alternative representation of time intervals is the triangular model (TM), which represents time intervals as points in a two-dimensional space. These detectors permit in-car Bluetooth device detection and thus vehicle identification.This manuscript explores first, the potentialities of Bluetooth detectors for Transport Engineering applications by characterising the data, their noises and biases. The effectiveness of the indoor positioning service is critically analyzed. The Histogram Maximum Likelihood position estimation based on Bayesian theory is utilized in the location determination phase. We apply our protocol in multiple indoors wireless sensor testbeds with multiple experimental scenarios to showcase scalability and trade-offs between network properties and configurable protocol parameters. With these assumptions taken for granted, theoretical models claim various performance milestones that cannot be achieved in realistic conditions. Computer (January 2001), Addlesee, M., Curwen, R., Hodges, S., Newman, J.F., Steggles, P., Ward, A., Hopper, A.: Implementing a sentient computing system. 954–958 (2003), Pandya, D., Jain, R., Lupu, E.: Indoor location estimation using multiple wireless technologies. Indoors, however, even coarse location remains unavailable. The results presented here are positive and very promising. sent out by a central facility that addresses a particular receiver unit (beeper) and produces an audible signal. Bluetooth tracking without discoverability Hay, Simon, Harle, Robert Abstract. However, Bluetooth tracking systems to date have relied on the Bluetooth â¦ In this paper we investigate an alternative: connection-based tracking. For example, this snippet sets the duration to 300: Indoors, however, even coarse location remains unavailable. In: Naccache, D. 116–133. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Use of the platform is illustrated through a practical example, which allows a user's current working desktop to follow them as they move around the environment. Restrictions of the components should match the capabilities of the devices leading to a UI component distribution decision that should reflect devel-opers' intentions and expectations of the users. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, View Profile, Robert Harle. Further, since the solution is infrastructure- and network-based, it does not require mobile devices to be upgraded in any way in order to be localized. Yet inexpensive, pervasive positioningâa requirement for wide-scale adoption of location-aware computingâhas been elusive. Users. S. Feldmann, K. Kyamakya, A. Zapater, and Z. Lue. This leads to propose a new methodology for Bluetooth equipped vehicle trajectory reconstruction. This sampling scheme is especially suitable for pervasive computing as the computational requirements remain constant in spite of growing data. Compared to the occurrence-based solution, the Weibull function utilizes the shape, shift, and scale parameters to describe the distribution over the entire RSSI domain. Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability. Understanding human activities is an important research topic, noticeably in assisted living and health monitoring. Furthermore symmetry exhibited by the environment may delay or prevent the filter from determining the userâs position. We designed the YanuX framework, which generalizes and supports the development of this new type of applications. This paper describes a study of Bluetooth radio propagation using an accurate indoor location system to conduct fine-grained signal strength surveys. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location â¦ The non-negativity and sparsity of factors are enforced by using the exponential distribution to generate the factors. If such a need does arise, you might want to know where you can manage your deviceâs Bluetooth discoverability in Windows 10 and weâre pointing you to the right place. table fan using brain signals has also been discussed and state-of-the-art International Symposium on Location-and Context-Awareness. Therefore, we give first an overview of the general characteristics of Bluetooth technology today, going deeper in the analysis of Bluetooth stackâs layers and the security features offered by the specifications. Cite as. We show that one part of the key exchange protocol -- an exponential backoff method employed in case of incorrect PIN usage -- adds no security, but in fact benefits an attacker. Unfortunately, the specification is immense and complicated, presenting a formidable challenge for novice developers. Most of the design choices for the service have been strongly influenced by Bluetooth features. The platform builds a dynamic model of the environment using these location sensors and resource information gathered by telemetry software, and presents it in a form suitable for application programmers. The limited samples are not able to represent the real signal distribution well in the conventional fingerprint approach such as in an occurrence-based solution. related to participants' music preferences. 480–483 (2003), Cheung, K., Intille, S., Larson, K.: An inexpensive Bluetooth-based indoor positioning hack. Moreover, in the case where there are a number of people who could respond to a crisis situation, it is not known which one is the nearest to the crisis and therefore the most suitable to contact. With these assumptions taken for granted, theoretical models claim various performance milestones that cannot be achieved in realistic conditions. Evaluating target-tracking protocols for wireless sensor networks that can localise multiple mobile assets can be a very challenging task. We place 33 fixed-location Bluetooth scanners in strategic spots If the user is unfamiliar with the IT technology, it will be impossible to get the wanted service. By enforcing constraints such as impassable walls and floors the filter is able to narrow down the absolute position of a pedestrian as they move through an indoor environment. The field tests show that the new algorithm proposed applying information filter with speed detection improves the horizontal positioning accuracy of indoor navigation with about 17% compared to the static fingerprinting positioning method, achieving a 4.2 m positioning accuracy on the average, and about 16% improvement compared to the point Kalman filter. Moreover, the techniques developed in the context of the Horus system are general and can be applied to other WLAN location determination systems to enhance their accuracy. The only item a user is required to carry is a small sensor tag, which identifies them to the system and locates them accurately in three dimensions. We conclude that Bluetooth is poorly suited to the purpose of fine-grained, low latency location inference due to specification and hard- ware limitations, and note that the movement speed of mobile devices is an important factor in calculating available bandwidth. Based on this algorithm, we intend to develop a cheap and easily configurable indoor localization system. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. We present experimental results showing that 802.11 and GSM beacons are sufficiently pervasive in the greater Seattle area to achieve 20-30 meter median accuracy with nearly 100% coverage measured by availability in people's daily lives. Indoors, however, even coarse location remains unavailable. Finally, we We present Beacon+, a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) device that extends the design of Apple's popular iBeacon specification with unspoofable, temporal, and authenticated advertisements. In practice it is necessary to frequently correct such algorithms using additional measurements or constraints. In this paper we present the implementation of a secure, non-invasive continuous authentication scheme supported by the use of Wearable Wireless Devices (WWD), which allow users to gain access to proximity-based services while preserving their privacy. Such systems reduce the deployment cost and privacy concerns that expert-based site survey systems can create. ACM Transactions on Information Systems 10(1), 91–102 (1992), Harle, R., Hopper, A.: The potential for location-aware power management. Ces dispositifs ubiquitaires et Ã©quipÃ©s de plusieurs interfaces sans fil de communication, sont rapidement devenus indispensables dans la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs avec une utilisation intensive. at multiple base stations positioned to provide overlapping coverage in indoor localization system, to greatly increase the number of controllable Other topics related to Bluetooth positioning can be found in, ... Pei et al. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices â¦ We address the issues that hinder its performance due to the real environment conditions and provide a deployable protocol. Empirical results of evaluating the receiver signal strength indicator (RSSI) at various distances between devices are also shown. In this paper, we design a new clustering protocol that adapts to the changes in the environment and the needs and goals of the user applications. Location is considered as the most important and relevant context information. Currently, there is a lack of satisfactory technical documentation describing Bluetooth application development and the parts of the Bluetooth specification that are relevant to software developers. The hardware implementation of the proposed neural network is also explored in this paper. In this chapter, the most important Bluetooth properties related to indoor localisation are experimentally investigated from a statistical perspective. Additionally we devise an improved scheme that circumvents some of the limitations of our implementation. This publication has not been â¦ Further, the role of link-strength is investigated in relation to social network properties. Research in the AAL community covers a wide range of topics, but one of the largest is human activity recognition and behavior understanding, with the objectives of detecting and recognizing actions, activity, and situations within an environment. Â© 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. This thesis explains Bluetooth programming in the context of Internet programming and shows how most concepts in Internet programming are easily translated to Bluetooth. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, easing deployment and maintenance. Understanding how people interact and socialize is important in many contexts from disease control to urban planning. This application shows that TM has the potential to support a traditional GIS to analyse interval-based geographical data. Therefore, a new autonomous communication concept among neighbor devices is essential for people who is unfamiliar with the IT technology. specific aspect of human life have increased in size and availability over the In this paper, we propose a novel crowdsourcing based approach to introduce elements of context in beacon encounters.We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach through a user study, where participants use a crowd-based mobile app designed to collect beacon category and privacy information as a scavenger hunt game. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to apply conformal prediction for the localisation purpose in general, and for the indoor localisation in particular. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, April 2003, pp. Context awareness underpins much of AAL research-human activities are generally context dependent. Current indoor localisation systems make use of common wireless signals such as Bluetooth, WiFi to track the users inside a building.
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